Piezo actuators directly convert electrical energy to mechanical energy through the piezoelectric effect. This means they have no moving parts that generate friction or wear, they are highly responsive and can achieve very high acceleration rates, which means they are suitable for high speed sinusoidal operations. Peizoelectric stack actuators are capable of operating in challenging environments such as vacuum, cryogenic, and in magnetic fields, making them suitable for applications in the consumer electronics, aerospace, semiconductor and automotive industries.